GLICÓLISE E DESVIO DAS PENTOSES GLICOSE MITOCÔNDRIA. CICLO DE KREBS. BIOQUÍMICA BÁSICA. PROFESSORA: ALINE MOREIRA DE SOUZA. As EROs diminuem a atividade do ciclo de Krebs e aumentam a atividade da As principais vias metabólicas envolvidas nesse processo, glicólise, ciclo do. A concentração de isocitrato, bem como a de outros intermediários do ciclo de Krebs, é mantida às custas de acetil-CoA e oxaloacetato, produtos da oxidação.

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All biological systems are requiring constant supply of energy in order to carry out manifold activities of the living organisms. To ensure this constant supply of energy, many macro-molecules of the cells namely, proteins, carbohydrates or fats are needed to be oxidized to release the locked energy inside them systems that is transferred to ATP. In colloquial terms, respiration refers to the process of breathing.

In scientific and medical terminology, however, respiration is a series of chemical reactions taking place at the cellular level. Goicolise can divide cellular respiration into three metabolic processes: Each of these occurs in a specific region of cicol cell. Therefore aerobic and anaerobic respiration differs in terms of the amount of energy that is produced. In respiration two important functions are performed: Ee that were generated during the catabolism are disposed of and in the second, ATP also known as adenosine tri-phosphate is produced.

Before glucose can be converted into ATP, it has be broken down into two pyruvate kres the ionized form of pyruvic acid. This process is known as glycolysis. Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen. In this way glycolysis allows cells to make small amounts of ATP. This process is called fermentation anaerobic glycolysis.

Glucose 6-phosphate is formed when the 6th carbon on the glucose molecule is phosphorylated by an ATP molecule. Fructose 1, flicolise is processed by an enzyme into two glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate molecules.

Two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are oxidized, losing hydrogen atoms and gaining phosphate groups to form 1, 3-diphosphoglycerate.

Two 1,3-diphosphoglycerate molecules phosphorylate ADP adenine diphosphate to yield two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate and two ATPs are produced. The phosphate groups on 3-phosphoglycerate move to the 2nd carbon, forming 2-phosphoglycerate.


Glicólise-Gliconeogenese-Via das Pentoses-Glicogenólise-Glicogênese by on Prezi

The two 2-phosphoglycerate molecules are dehydrated and forms two high-energy phosphoenolpyruvate molecules. In the process, a phosphate group from ATP is transferred to glucose producing glucose 6-phosphate.

The enzyme phosphoglucoisomerase converts glucose 6-phosphate into its isomer glicolie 6-phosphate. Isomers have the same molecular formula, but the atoms of each molecule are arranged differently. The enzyme phosphofructokinase uses another ATP molecule to transfer a phosphate group to fructose 6-phosphate to form cicclo 1, 6-bisphosphate.

The enzyme aldolase splits fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate into two sugars that are isomers of each other. These two sugars are dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate. The enzyme triose phosphate isomerase rapidly inter-converts the molecules dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate.

Glyceraldehyde phosphate is removed as soon as it is formed to be used in the next step of glycolysis. Net result for steps 4 and 5: The enzyme glicllise phosphate dehydrogenase serves two functions in this step. Next triose phosphate dehydrogenase adds a phosphate P from the cytosol to the oxidized glyceraldehyde phosphate to form 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate. This occurs for both molecules of glyceraldehyde phosphate produced in step 5. This happens for each molecule of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.

The process yields two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules and two ATP molecules. The enzyme phosphoglyceromutase relocates the P from 3-phosphoglycerate from the third carbon to the second carbon to form 2-phosphoglycerate. The enzyme enolase removes a molecule of water from 2-phosphoglycerate to form phosphoenolpyruvic acid PEP.

This happens for each molecule of 2-phosphoglycerate. This happens for each molecule glicplise PEP. This reaction yields 2 dde of pyruvic acid and 2 ATP molecules.

After the glucose molecule has been converted two pyruvate they must be converted into acetyl CoA pronounced: An enzyme called coenzyme A is combined with the remaining acetyl to make acetyl CoA which is then fed into the Krebs Cycle. Citrate is formed when the acetyl group kresb acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate from the previous Krebs cycle…. We are now back at the beginning of the Krebs cycle. Because ciclk produces two pyruvate molecules from one glucose, each glucose is processes through the Krebs cycle twice.

Glicólise, Ciclo de Krebs e Fosforilação Oxidativa.

I the mitochondrion, the energy stored in NADH is used to generate a proton glcolise across the mitochondrial membrane and the energy of the proton gradient is used to make ATP. Inside the mitochondrial matrix, the electrons from NADH are transferred to the electron carrier Coenzyme Q by NADH dehydrogenase, and the protons are transferred across the membrane to the intermembrane space. Coenzyme Q carries the electrons to the cytochrome bc1 complex. As the electron move from the bc1 to cytochrome c, more protons are carried from the inside to the outside of the membrane.


Cytochrome c transfers electrons to the cytochrome c oxidase complex. Protons are also transferred to the outside of the membrane by the cytochrome c oxidase complex. The cytochrome oxidase glicolixe then transfers electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen, the terminal electron acceptor and water is formed as the product.

The transfer of protons to the intermembrane space generates a proton motive force across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. Since membranes are impermeable to the ions, the protons that reenter gkicolise matrix pass through special proton channel proteins called ATP synthase. Formation of ATP by this mechanism is referred to as oxidative phosphorylation. The reason of 2 ATP difference between eukaryote and prokaryote is presence of mitochondria.

So, they will remain with 4 ATP from glycolysis. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.

Notify me ee new comments via email. There are two dd types of cellular respiration, aerobic and anaerobic: Aerobic respiration takes place gliclise the gljcolise of or with the help of oxygen, because oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the process. Anaerobic respiration takes place without the presence or help of oxygen. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Email required Address never made public.

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